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PCOD(Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome)-Part-1

PCOD (Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome)-This is a hormonal disorder in which the ovaries are enlarged with cysts at the periphery of ovary-the cause for this is not known but genetic and enviornmental factors may be responsible.
 Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)
Brief  introduction –
Polycystic ovarian syndrome  ,also  known as  Stein  Leveinthen syndrome is a condition that affects hormone levels during a woman’s childbearing years (ages 15 to 44) and is one of the most common causes of female infertility.
If  totally  neglected  it  can lead to infertility  and  other complications.
The various  complications of this disorder  are  mentioned  in this  article.
It has three main features:
 Cysts in the ovaries: Many small, fluid-filled cells called “cysts” develop inside the ovary.  The eggs inside these sacs never mature enough to trigger ovulation.  The lack of ovulation alters the levels of estrogen, progesterone, FSH and LH.
 High levels of male hormones: Hormone changes lead to low levels of estrogen and progesterone – hormones that control the menstrual cycle.  Whereas the level of male hormones called androgens becomes higher than normal.
 Irregular or skip periods: This hormone imbalance disrupts menstruation, causing them to have irregular periods and make it difficult for them to get pregnant.
Incidence -Incidence of this  disorder  is  8-20 percent in  women who are  in the reproductive  age  group.
Approximately  70 percent of the  infertility  cases  are attributed to  Pcods.
 Doctors do not know exactly what causes PCOS.  They believe that high levels of male hormones prevent the ovaries from producing hormones and producing eggs normally.  This may stem from factors such as genes, insulin resistance and high levels of inflammation in the body.
 Studies show that PCOS tends to run in families.  It is likely that several genes – not just one – contribute to the condition.
 Women whose mother or sister has PCOS or type 2 diabetes are more likely to develop PCOS.
 insulin resistance
 Up to 70 percent of women with PCOS have insulin resistance, which means their cells cannot use insulin properly.
 Insulin is a hormone that helps the body use sugar from foods for energy.  When cells cannot use insulin properly, the body’s demand for insulin increases and more insulin is produced.  The extra insulin then prompts the ovaries to produce more male hormones.
 Women with PCOS often have increased levels of inflammation in their bodies.  Being overweight can also contribute to inflammation.  Studies have linked excess inflammation to high androgen levels, which can lead to heart and blood vessel problems.
 Being overweight has been linked to PCOS, but their relationship is not well understood.  Many women of normal weight have PCOS, and many women who are overweight do not.  However, obesity is a major cause of insulin resistance.
 Both obesity and insulin resistance can increase the risk of serious health problems for women with PCOS:
 -diabetes type 2
For  details on  symptoms of diabetes pl  click on the link  given below
 -gestational diabetes
 -heart disease
 -high blood pressure.
For further  details of  PCOD(Polycystic Ovarian  Syndrome) pl  go through our article on PCOD(Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome)-Part-2              pl click on thelink given below                                                                                                                                        
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