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Pulmonary hypertension – Symptoms and causes – Dr.Sagar

Pulmonary hypertension - Symptoms and causes
                                                     Pulmonary Hypertension


Pulmonary hypertension-symptoms and causes include blue lips and skin-cyanosis,chest pain dizziness,fainting spells-syncope,e.t.c -all symptoms and causes are described in detail in this article.The  blood  flowing  through the  blood vessels  that  supply  oxygen rich  blood to the  lungs, normally exerts some pressure  on  those blood vessels.
When  this  blood pressure rises  beyond  the  normal range, it is called  pulmonary hypertension .
It  can  increase  the work load  on the heart. It is  a  critical  condition and  can  lead to  heart  failure  and  even  death .
Incidence -Incidence of pulmonary hypertension is one percent of the total population of the world.
Etiology -It  is  common in  individuals  of  75 yrs  old and  higher  age  groups.
Genetic factors  are  also  responsible for  it .
Normal range of  pulmonary  blood  pressure -The  normal  range  of  pulmonary  blood  pressure  is  between  8-20 mm Hg.
If  it  is  more  than  25 mm  Hg  then  it  is  labelled  as  pulmonary  hypertension.
It  can  cause  serious health  problems.

Pulmonary  hypertension is  of  2 types-

1-primary  pulmonary  hypertension
2-Secondary  pulmonary  hypertension
In  primary  pulmonary  hypertension  there  is  no  underlying cause.
It  is  a  rare  condition.
In Secondary pulmonary  hypertension there is  underlying  condition  which  is  responsible  for  pulmonary  hypertension  like  –
a-Chronic  obstructive  pulmonary  disease
b-Congenital heart  diseases .

Symptoms of  pulmonary hypertension –

Complications of  pulmonary hypertension –

As purified  ,oxygen  rich blood  arrives in  the  right  side of the  heart  first,it puts lot of  stress  on the  right  side of the  heart  causing right-sided heart  failure.
As a  result  on the  increased  stress on the  right  ventricle  it’s can  cause a  disease  called  right  ventricular  hypertrophy.
Due to  thickened  arterial  wall  there is  occurrence  of  collapse of  the  right  ventricle  due to  which  the  heart  has to  work  more  than  it’s  regular  capacity .The  dimensions of the  ventricle  increase and  the  blood pressure also rises .
This  is life  threatening  complication and  can  result  in  death.
Blood may even  enter the  lungs, causing  haemoptysis and  can  be  lethal.
Arrythmia can  also  occur.
If  any  of  these  symptoms  arises  immediately the  family  me  of  the  concerned  individual  should  make  phone  call  to  an  ambulance  with  oxygen  facility, aperture, minimum  two  ward  boys  to  shift  the  patient  in  hospital  of  a  Cardiologist, or  MD General Medicine doctors.

Etiology of pulmonary hypertension –

Investigations  required-

Right  side  heart  catheterization  to  measure  the  pulmonary  blood pressure
If  the  pulmonary blood pressure is  more  than  25 my Hg  at  rest  or  more than  30 mm Hg during  exertion, then  it  is diagnosed  as  pulmonary  hypertension.
According to  6 minutes  walk  test  the pulmonary hypertension  is  graded  between  1-4
Stage-1 -In  this  there are no symptoms and  there is no  discomfort  during  exertion
Stage-4 -In this  stage  there are  signs and  symptoms of pulmonary hypertension even at  rest .
This  stage  is  given  the  name of  6 minutes  walk  test  as  this test  determines  as  to  how  much  a  patient of  pulmonary hypertension  can walk  in 6 minutes and  what  is  the  response  of  body  to  this  activity.
Depending  on  the  response  of  this  6 minutes  walk  test  ,further  treatment  is  planned  by  doctors.
Treatment  of  pulmonary hypertension –

Drugs  for  pulmonary hypertension –


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