This virus can infect both pigs and humans. It is a respiratory disease due to influenza A virus.
In today’s date science has made so much advancement, but still mankind has to struggle so much against certain virus.
A virus -that is so small, that it is not possible to visualize it on the light microscope also.
It is on the boundary of living and non -living beings.
The influenza A variant subtype H1N1 is the common cause of swine flu in humans. It has similar genetic features to the H1N1 subtype of influenza virus that is identified in pigs.
Other main subtypes of this virus known cause influenza in pigs include H1N2 and H3N2 These H1N2 and H3N2 also cause infections in humans.
H1N1-outbreak-Widespread occurence of H1N1 occurred in 2009 .
Since 2009, the H1N1 virus has become one of the common viruses that circulate each flu season. Immunity to the virus has developed in many of the people now. Due to the immunity developed people are now less worried about this virus. But still if any individual has fever not responding to the usual antipyretics and antibiotics ,he should consult a qualified and experienced MD General Medicine who will clinically and by investigations try to rule out swine flu. Or if the diagnosis of swine flu is made earlier, then as in case of other diseases, treatment becomes much easier and undue complications are also avoided.
Any time a virus affects humans from a different source, it is a concern especially if a new virus affects human beings, no vaccine is available regards this virus and no medications have come up in today’s date regards this virus. In such cases emphasis should always be on prevention. Scientists cannot always tell how a new virus will affect people, or how it will change over time.
Symptoms of swine flu-
The symptoms of this virus are almost similar to regular flu like –
vomiting and diarrhea, less commonly
In severe ,neglected cases, there may be respiratory failure and death, but this is rare as educated, health conscious people take opinion from qualified , experienced physician ( MD General Medicine ) doctor as soon as they notice that fever is not coming under control in 2 days of routine treatment. Those people who keep on neglecting their health, in them these things can happen. Not being aware of health is seen nowadays in even highly educated class, as well as in low socioeconomic class. Most people’s symptoms are relatively mild.High risk of catching swine flu is therein young children, older people, pregnant women, and those with a compromised immune system .
Mode of transmission of swine flu -The main route of swine flu virus transmission between humans is air borne transmission when someone infected with swine flu virus sneezes or coughs, and the virus enters one of the potential mucous surfaces of the airways or when an individual touched something infected with the virus and subsequently touch their nose ,transmission can occur. Prevention of swine flu– Prevention of spread of swine flu is by washing their hands regularly with soap and water.If soap and water are not available then use of hand sanitizer is advised before taking food.N95 mask is advisable.
Swine Flu Vaccine
A vaccine has been developed to protect humans from H1N1 after the outbreak of 2009 . After that vaccination against H1N1 has been advised by doctors.
First it is estimated which flu virus strains are likely to increase during the flu season, which rises up to high in winter and according to it vaccines are prepared for the types that are most likely to occur.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend an annual flu shot for everyone aged 6 months or older, barring certain rare exceptions. A doctor can advise on needs of the specific individual.
Treatment for swine flu-
Most of the patients recover from H1N1 without extensive medical line of treatment.
In some cases, the physician( MD General Medicine) has to prescribe an antiviral medication to shorten the duration of symptoms and decrease their severity.
A patient may require these drugs urgently if –
he has severe symptoms or complications
he is admitted in the hospital
he is having a high risk of complications
Following things should be done to manage symptoms of this virus and to prevent further infection-
using over-the-counter remedies
washing hands regularly with soap and water
getting plenty of sleep
drinking lots of fuids
eating a balanced diet
avoiding being close to someone with flu symptoms
not touching surfaces that may have the virus
Anyone who has flu should quarantine himself while symptoms last,or till a duration advised by the physician (MD General Medicine) doctor .This prevents spread to other people.
Treatment of swine flu -consists of antivirals
rest, analgesics and fluids. In some cases antiviral medication and IV fluids may be required.
Menthol and Rest
Antiviral drug, Cough medicine, Decongestant, Analgesic and Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug
Causes for this viral infection-
H1N1 is a flu strain that can occur in people and spread alongside seasonal flu viruses. An individual can acquire H1N1 if he is in close contact with a patient of H1N1.
Individuals infected with with this virus may have a risk of contracting new types of flu or other diseases which are acquired from animals. Diseases acquired from animals are called zoonotic diseases.
Risk factors for swine flu-
Some people have a higher risk of flu, including H1N1, or having severe symptoms or complications.
Following are such kind of individuals –
people aged over 65 years
children under 5 years
people with conditions, such as diabetes, HIV, or cancer
Individuals with chronic lung disease, such as asthma
Individuals with chronic heart disease, such as heart failure
Individuals with a compromised immune system
children with neurologic conditions
If it is suspected that a person may have H1N1 or another type of flu ,opinion should be taken from physician (MD General Medicine ) who will advise -The rapid influenza diagnostic test which can help identify swine flu. However, this test can vary in effectiveness and may show a negative result when a certain influenza virus strain is present.
More accurate tests are available in specialist laboratories.
Rapid flu test is advised and the treatment is the same as flu irrespective of the test outcome.
Prevention of swine flu-
If a person has flu, the following tips can help prevent further spread:
Avoiding contact with other people.
To quarantine oneself while experiencing flu symptoms.
Covering the mouth with a tissue while coughing or sneezing. If no tissue is available cover the mouth and nose with your hand or crooked arm.
Put your used tissues in a biomedical waste bag and dispose it properly .
Wash your hands and face regularly.
Keep all surfaces that you touch clean.
Following all doctors’ instructions.
Vaccination should be done against swine flu.
Those who come in contact with patients infected with this virus should do the following things –
follow all health and safety precautions when handling animals
ensure that swine have their relevant vaccinations
call a veternary doctor if an animal appears sick
avoid contact with pigs if they or other animals appear ill
Can I catch this virus from pork?
Mode of spread of swine flu through air through the droplets in the air and on surfaces. It is a respiratory disease. So if pork is properly cooked then it is not possible to spread by eating pork.
Could there be another pandemic of this virus?
Chances of H1N1 are very less now as people have developed some degree of immunity.
But pandemic can occur if any novel virus moves from animals to humans.
a crowd of people that could be spreading a pandemic
Swine flu pandemic-
A pandemic can occur when a type of influenza virus, known as the influenza A virus, mutates suddenly,
This change can result in what the body sees as a completely new virus. The major and abrupt change from a recognizable virus to a new one is called an antigenic shift.
On the surface of the virus are HA proteins and NA proteins. If one or both of these change, a new influenza A virus subtype can result. Influenza viruses have an H figure and an N figure. Swine flu, for example, is also known as H1N1, while avian flu has the subtype H5N1.
If a flu subtype gains the ability to spread rapidly between people, a pandemic may result.
After the pandemic emerges and spreads, humans develop some immunity over time. The virus subtype may then circulate among humans for several years, causing occasional flu epidemics.
Various organizations around the world, such as the WHO and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), monitor the behavior and movement of influenza viruses.
Their findings help health authorities develop strategies for controlling the spread and impact of influenza
The WHO have a six-phaseTrusted Source program for identifying potential swine flu pandemics:
Phase 1: No local health authorities have reported that an influenza virus circulating among animals can cause disease in humans.
Phase 2: An animal influenza virus circulating in domesticated or wild animals has caused infection in humans. The WHO consider this a potential pandemic threat.
Phase 3: An animal or human-animal influenza virus has caused disease in small clusters of people. However, it has not resulted in human-to-human transmission that is rapid enough to sustain community-level outbreaks.
Phase 4: The WHO verify that human-to-human transmission of an animal or human-animal influenza virus is now able to sustain community-level outbreaks.
Phase 5: The same virus has caused sustained community-level outbreaks in two or more countries within a single WHO region.
Phase 6: In addition to the phase 5 criteria, the same virus has caused sustained community-level outbreaks in at least one other country in a different WHO region.
Post-peak period: Levels of pandemic influenza in most countries with adequate surveillance have dropped below peak levels.
Post-pandemic period: Levels of influenza activity have returned to the usual levels of seasonal swine flu influenza in most countries with adequate surveillance.
Sinus Surgery-Details,Reasons for doing sinus surgery,technique,risks,recovery,side effects,success rate,ballon sinuplasty